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Indicators of Well-being in Canada


Canadians in Context - Population Size and Growth

How many are we?

  1. Population Size and Growth

Where do we live?

  1. Geographic Distribution

What are our perceptions?

  1. Perceptions and Life Satisfaction



This section provides information on Canada's Population Size and Population Growth Rate. It also includes information on the components of population growth: Natural Increase and Net Migration.


Population Size

In 1867, the year of Confederation, Canada's population was close to 3.5 million. Since then, the population size has grown steadily and has doubled about every 40 years. In recent years, however, the increase in population has slowed. In July 2012, Canada's population was estimated at just under 34.9 million.


This Chart contains data for Population of Canada since Confederation, selected years, 1867-2012. Information is available in table below 2012 = 34.9 2011 = 34.5 2010 = 34.1 2009 = 33.7 2008 = 33.3 2007 = 32.9 2006 = 32.6 2001 = 31.0 1991 = 28.0 1951 = 14.0 1910 = 7.0 1867 = 3.5 (millions) Population of Canada since Confederation, selected years, 1867-2012

Note: The 1867 figure applies to April 1 of that year. From 1902 to 1970, the figures apply to June 1. From 1971 to the present, the figures apply to July 1. The population of Newfoundland and Labrador is excluded before 1949.

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 075-0001 - Historical statistics, estimated population and immigrant arrivals, annual (persons), CANSIM (database)(accessed:2013-07-29); and Statistics Canada. Table 051-0001 - Estimates of population, by age group and sex for July 1, Canada, provinces and territories, annual (persons unless otherwise noted), CANSIM (database) (accessed: 2013-07-29).


Warning: This data table may contain very wide content. Horizontal scrolling may be necessary.

Population of Canada since Confederation, selected years, 1867-2012 (millions)
186719101951199120012006200720082009201020112012
3.57.014.028.031.032.632.933.333.734.134.534.9

Population Growth Rate

Population growth is the change in size of population between two dates. It is the result of a country's natural increase and its net migration.  

The rate of growth in Canada has declined in recent years. Canada's average annual growth rate from 2000 to 2010 was 1.1%. The growth rate is expected to slow even further over the next several decades (0.9% between 2010 and 2060).


This Chart contains data for Average annual population growth rate, historical (1867-2010) and projected (2010-2060). Information is available in table below 2010-2060 = 0.9 2000-2010 = 1.1 1990-2000 = 1.0 1980-1990 = 1.2 1970-1980 = 1.4 1960-1970 = 1.8 1950-1960 = 2.7 1940-1950 = 1.9 1930-1940 = 1.1 1920-1930 = 1.8 1910-1920 = 2.0 1900-1910 = 2.8 1890-1900 = 1.0 1880-1890 = 1.2 1867-1880 = 1.6 (percent) Average annual population growth rate, historical (1867-2010) and projected (2010-2060)

Note: From 1867 to 1901, the population count that was used to calculate population growth was that of April 1. From 1902 to 1970, the population count was that of June 1. From 1971 to present, the population count was that of July 1. The population of Newfoundland and Labrador is excluded before 1949.

Source: Statistics Canada. Historical Statistics, Estimated Population and Immigration Arrivals (CANSIM Table 75-0001). Ottawa, Statistics Canada, 2010; and Statistics Canada. Estimates of Population, Canada, the Provinces and Territories (CANSIM Table 051-0001). Ottawa: and Statistics Canada, 2010; Statistics Canada. Projected population, by projection scenario, sex and age group as of July 1, Canada, provinces and territories, annual (CANSIM Table 052-0005). Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 2010.


Warning: This data table may contain very wide content. Horizontal scrolling may be necessary.

Average annual population growth rate, historical (1867-2010) and projected (2010-2060) (percent)
1867-18801880-18901890-19001900-19101910-19201920-19301930-19401940-19501950-19601960-19701970-19801980-19901990-20002000-20102010-2060
1.61.21.02.82.01.81.11.92.71.81.41.21.01.10.9

Natural Increase

Natural increase is the change in population between two points in time, calculated by subtracting the number of deaths from the number of births.

Between 2001 and 2012, there were 4,262,454 births and 2,795,940 deaths in Canada, resulting in a natural increase of 1,466,514.[1]  

Natural increase largely depends on fertility, which is the number of births in relation to the number of women of childbearing age. The most frequently used indicator for measuring fertility is the total fertility rate (TFR).[2] Over the past 50 years, the total fertility rate has dropped significantly in Canada. From a high of 3.93 children per woman in 1959, the TFR underwent a sharp decline in the 1960s and then continued to drop until it reached a historic low of 1.49 children per woman in 2000. After that, the rate increased to reach 1.6 children per woman in 2011. The highest TFR value seen in Canada in 2011 was recorded in Nunavut (3.0). In contrast, British Columbia, in 2011, had the lowest value, namely 1.4 children per woman.[3]

The replacement fertility rate, or average number of children that the women of one generation would need to have to result - solely through natural increase - in a generation of the same size, is estimated at 2.1 children per woman for developed countries like Canada. However, it should be noted that very few developed countries reach this level, as indicated by the fact that in 2010, no G8 member had a total fertility rate reaching the replacement rate.[4]

 

This Chart contains data for Fertility rate, Canada, 1921-2011. Information is available in table below 2011 = 1.6 2010 = 1.6 2009 = 1.7 2008 = 1.7 2007 = 1.7 2006 = 1.6 2005 = 1.5 2004 = 1.5 2003 = 1.5 2002 = 1.5 2001 = 1.5 2000 = 1.5 1999 = 1.5 1998 = 1.6 1997 = 1.6 1996 = 1.6 1995 = 1.7 1994 = 1.7 1993 = 1.7 1992 = 1.7 1991 = 1.7 1990 = 1.7 1989 = 1.7 1988 = 1.6 1987 = 1.6 1986 = 1.6 1985 = 1.6 1984 = 1.6 1983 = 1.6 1982 = 1.6 1981 = 1.6 1980 = 1.7 1979 = 1.7 1978 = 1.7 1977 = 1.7 1976 = 1.8 1975 = 1.8 1974 = 1.8 1973 = 1.9 1972 = 2.0 1971 = 2.1 1970 = 2.3 1969 = 2.4 1968 = 2.5 1967 = 2.6 1966 = 2.8 1965 = 3.2 1964 = 3.5 1963 = 3.7 1962 = 3.8 1961 = 3.9 1960 = 3.9 1959 = 3.9 1958 = 3.9 1957 = 3.9 1956 = 3.8 1955 = 3.8 1954 = 3.8 1953 = 3.7 1952 = 3.6 1951 = 3.5 1950 = 3.4 1949 = 3.4 1948 = 3.4 1947 = 3.6 1946 = 3.4 1945 = 3.0 1944 = 3.0 1943 = 3.1 1942 = 3.0 1941 = 2.8 1940 = 2.8 1939 = 2.7 1938 = 2.7 1937 = 2.6 1936 = 2.7 1935 = 2.8 1934 = 2.8 1933 = 2.9 1932 = 3.1 1931 = 3.2 1930 = 3.3 1929 = 3.2 1928 = 3.3 1927 = 3.3 1926 = 3.4 1925 = 3.1 1924 = 3.3 1923 = 3.2 1922 = 3.4 1921 = 3.5 (average number of children a woman aged 15 to 49 would have in her lifetime) Fertility rate, Canada, 1921-2011

Note: The 1921-1959 rates exclude Newfoundland and Labrador, Yukon, and the Northwest Territories; and the 1960-1990 rates exclude Newfoundland and Labrador.

Source: For 1921 to 1999 data, Statistics Canada, unpublished data. For 2000 to 2011, Statistics Canada. Table 102-4505 - Crude birth rate, age-specific and total fertility rates (live births), Canada, provinces and territories, annual (rate), CANSIM (database)(accessed:2013-07-30).


Warning: This data table may contain very wide content. Horizontal scrolling may be necessary.

Fertility rate, Canada, 1921-2011 (average number of children a woman aged 15 to 49 would have in her lifetime)
1921192219231924192519261927192819291930193119321933193419351936193719381939194019411942194319441945194619471948194919501951195219531954195519561957195819591960196119621963196419651966196719681969197019711972197319741975197619771978197919801981198219831984198519861987198819891990199119921993199419951996199719981999200020012002200320042005200620072008200920102011
3.53.43.23.33.13.43.33.33.23.33.23.12.92.82.82.72.62.72.72.82.83.03.13.03.03.43.63.43.43.43.53.63.73.83.83.83.93.93.93.93.93.83.73.53.22.82.62.52.42.32.12.01.91.81.81.81.71.71.71.71.61.61.61.61.61.61.61.61.71.71.71.71.71.71.71.61.61.61.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.61.71.71.71.61.6

Net Migration

Net migration is the variation of the population between two dates resulting from the difference between the number of immigrants and the number of emigrants.

Since Confederation, immigration has been an important contributor to Canada's population growth. In 1913, immigration peaked at just over 400,000 immigrants. From 2001 to 2012, it averaged a little less than one quarter of a million (247,402) immigrants per year.

Between 2001 and 2012, there were 2,968,829 immigrants and 560,654 emigrants, resulting in a net migration of about 2,408,175 persons.[5]

Canada's annual growth rate in 2011/2012 (+1.1%) exceeds that of other industrialized countries including the United States (+0.7%), Italy (+0.3%) and France (+0.5%).[6]

 

This Chart contains data for Annual number of immigrants since Confederation, 1867-2012. Information is available in table below 2012 = 259.97 2011 = 259.11 2010 = 270.58 2009 = 245.289 2008 = 249.6 2007 = 238.125 2006 = 254.4 2005 = 244.579 2004 = 239.082 2003 = 199.17 2002 = 256.41 2001 = 252.533 2000 = 205.71 1999 = 173.194 1998 = 194.459 1997 = 224.857 1996 = 217.478 1995 = 220.738 1994 = 235.36 1993 = 266.89 1992 = 244.281 1991 = 221.382 1990 = 203.357 1989 = 177.632 1988 = 152.211 1987 = 130.88 1986 = 88.657 1985 = 83.925 1984 = 88.592 1983 = 101.404 1982 = 135.339 1981 = 127.238 1980 = 143.825 1979 = 84.518 1978 = 100.967 1977 = 130.931 1976 = 170.028 1975 = 209.283 1974 = 217.456 1973 = 138.526 1972 = 117.036 1971 = 121.9 1970 = 147.713 1969 = 161.531 1968 = 183.974 1967 = 222.876 1966 = 194.743 1965 = 146.758 1964 = 112.606 1963 = 93.151 1962 = 74.586 1961 = 71.689 1960 = 104.111 1959 = 106.928 1958 = 124.851 1957 = 282.164 1956 = 164.857 1955 = 109.946 1954 = 154.227 1953 = 168.868 1952 = 164.498 1951 = 194.391 1950 = 73.912 1949 = 95.217 1948 = 125.414 1947 = 64.127 1946 = 71.719 1945 = 22.722 1944 = 12.801 1943 = 8.504 1942 = 7.576 1941 = 9.329 1940 = 11.324 1939 = 16.994 1938 = 17.244 1937 = 15.101 1936 = 11.643 1935 = 11.277 1934 = 12.476 1933 = 14.382 1932 = 20.591 1931 = 27.53 1930 = 104.806 1929 = 164.993 1928 = 166.783 1927 = 158.886 1926 = 135.982 1925 = 84.907 1924 = 124.164 1923 = 133.729 1922 = 64.224 1921 = 91.728 1920 = 138.824 1919 = 107.698 1918 = 41.845 1917 = 72.91 1916 = 55.914 1915 = 36.665 1914 = 150.484 1913 = 400.87 1912 = 375.756 1911 = 331.288 1910 = 286.839 1909 = 173.694 1908 = 143.326 1907 = 272.409 1906 = 211.653 1905 = 141.465 1904 = 131.252 1903 = 138.66 1902 = 89.102 1901 = 55.747 1900 = 41.681 1899 = 44.543 1898 = 31.9 1897 = 21.716 1896 = 16.835 1895 = 18.79 1894 = 20.829 1893 = 29.633 1892 = 30.996 1891 = 82.165 1890 = 75.067 1889 = 91.6 1888 = 88.766 1887 = 84.526 1886 = 69.152 1885 = 79.169 1884 = 103.824 1883 = 133.624 1882 = 112.458 1881 = 47.991 1880 = 38.505 1879 = 40.492 1878 = 29.807 1877 = 27.082 1876 = 25.633 1875 = 27.382 1874 = 39.373 1873 = 50.05 1872 = 36.578 1871 = 27.773 1870 = 24.706 1869 = 18.63 1868 = 12.765 1867 = 10.666 (thousands) Annual number of immigrants since Confederation, 1867-2012

Note: The population of Newfoundland and Labrador is included beginning in 1949. From 1867 to 1901, the figures apply to April 1. From 1902 to 1971, the figures apply to June 1. From 1972 on the figures apply to July 1.

Source: For 1867 to 1971 data, Statistics Canada. Table 075-0001 - Historical statistics, estimated population and immigrant arrivals, annual (persons) CANSIM (database) (accessed: 2013-07-30); and for 1972 to 2012 data, Statistics Canada. Table 051-0004 - Components of population growth, Canada, provinces and territories, annual (persons), CANSIM (database) (accessed: 2013-07-30).


Warning: This data table may contain very wide content. Horizontal scrolling may be necessary.

Annual number of immigrants since Confederation, 1867-2012 (thousands)
18671868186918701871187218731874187518761877187818791880188118821883188418851886188718881889189018911892189318941895189618971898189919001901190219031904190519061907190819091910191119121913191419151916191719181919192019211922192319241925192619271928192919301931193219331934193519361937193819391940194119421943194419451946194719481949195019511952195319541955195619571958195919601961196219631964196519661967196819691970197119721973197419751976197719781979198019811982198319841985198619871988198919901991199219931994199519961997199819992000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012
10.66612.76518.6324.70627.77336.57850.0539.37327.38225.63327.08229.80740.49238.50547.991112.458133.624103.82479.16969.15284.52688.76691.675.06782.16530.99629.63320.82918.7916.83521.71631.944.54341.68155.74789.102138.66131.252141.465211.653272.409143.326173.694286.839331.288375.756400.87150.48436.66555.91472.9141.845107.698138.82491.72864.224133.729124.16484.907135.982158.886166.783164.993104.80627.5320.59114.38212.47611.27711.64315.10117.24416.99411.3249.3297.5768.50412.80122.72271.71964.127125.41495.21773.912194.391164.498168.868154.227109.946164.857282.164124.851106.928104.11171.68974.58693.151112.606146.758194.743222.876183.974161.531147.713121.9117.036138.526217.456209.283170.028130.931100.96784.518143.825127.238135.339101.40488.59283.92588.657130.88152.211177.632203.357221.382244.281266.89235.36220.738217.478224.857194.459173.194205.71252.533256.41199.17239.082244.579254.4238.125249.6245.289270.58259.11259.97

Footnotes

  1. Statistics Canada. Table 051-0004 - Components of population growth, Canada, provinces and territories, annual (persons), CANSIM (database). 

    Since the data are collected from July 1 of a given year to June 30 of the following year; the data for the 2000-2011 period are the data for the period from July 1, 2001 to June 30, 2012.

    [Back to Text]
  2. Statistics Canada.  Definitions available at: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/concepts/definitions/fertility-fecondite-eng.htm (cited May 3, 2012).

    [Back to Text]
  3. Statistics Canada. Table 102-4505 - Crude birth rate, age-specific and total fertility rates (live births), Canada, provinces and territories, annual (rate), CANSIM (database).

    [Back to Text]
  4. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). OECD(2013), Statistics from A to Z: Fertility. OECD Statistics. Available from OECD.org [accessed July 30, 2013].

     

    [Back to Text]
  5. Statistics Canada. Table 051-0004 - Components of population growth, Canada, provinces and territories, annual (persons), CANSIM (database). 

    Since the data are collected from July 1 of a given year to June 30 of the following year; the data for the 2000-2011 period are the data for the period from July 1, 2001 to June 30, 2012.

    [Back to Text]
  6. Statistics Canada. Annual Demographic Estimates: Canada, Provinces and Territories, 2012. (Cat. 91-215-XWE, see Section 1: Total demographic estimates).

    [Back to Text]

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Date Modified:
2014-08-23